Country: Vatican City is a sovereign city-state within the city of Rome. It is the head seat of the Roman Catholic Church, ruled by the Pope. The head of State is the Pope who also has his residence here. The main buildings of the Vatican City are: the St. Peter's Basilica on St. Peter's square, the Sistine Chapel, the Vatican museums, the Vatican gardens and the Apostolic Palace. Scientists will find the Vatican Library and the Archivio Segreto Vaticano of special interest.

In Ancient times the Circus of Emperor Nero was held here . North of the Circus was a cemetery. Emperor Constantine built a church here in the 3rd century. After time more buildings gradually appeared. At the end of the 14th century, when the Pope returned from Avignon, the place came to be a centre for administration of the Roman Catholic church. The St. Peter's basilica started to be built in 1506. Building work for the palace of the Pope, still used as a residence for the pope and centre for several Congregations, commenced in 1589.

The Vatican has 829 inhabitants (2009). These consist mainly of clergymen, monks and nuns and soldiers of the famous Swiss Guard.

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St. Peter's Basilica - Tomb Pope Clemens XIII Tetragrammaton
St. Peter's Basilica - Tomb Pope Pius X Tetragrammaton



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